The red grapes do not get pressed directly after picking and crushing. The colour of the red grape and the desired tannins are found mainly in the skins of the berries. To extract these components we need a different processing approach to that of making white wine. Therefore, the grapes are fermented entirely on their skins after crushing and de-stemming (Fermentation on skins).
|27KB||A Spätburgunder bunch before and after de-stemming.|
|52KB||Crushed Spätburgunder grapes (without stems) ready for fermentation.|
|29KB||During the fermentation carbon dioxide is formed which pushes the grape skins to the surface where they form a ‘cap’. These skins are therefore not in contact with the majority of the wine which means we are not extracting the necessary colour and tannin we desire. We bring the wine back in contact with the skins by pumping over.|
|31KB||To do this we pump the wine, from a valve at the bottom of the tank, back over the cap. We do this at least twice a day.|
|17KB||In some cases we will drain the wine into a tub before pumping it back over the cap (pump over with air). Red wine has a high content of polyphenols and these need air to form out the polymers which are so desirable for good sensory perception and mouth feel.|
|34KB||Here is a fermentation lock. It is a closure for a wine tank which allows the fermentation gas (CO2) to escape but prevents the entrance of air by means of the water in the lock. When the fermentation gas is bubbling out a characteristic sound is heard.
Hear 10 secondsof different types or stages of fermation (each 216 KB): Control of malolactic fermentation
|Pressing of Red wine||At LINGENFELDER the fermentation usually takes from 14-25 days. Based on experience and sensory evaluation we will determine the optimal period of maceration. After this period we are ready to press the fermented red grapes.|
|32KB||After pressing, the LINGENFELDER red wines are generally aged in oak barrels. Here they complete the malolactic fermentation.
(See also: Control of Malolactic fermentation)
After the MLF we rack the wine clear and continue to be age it in oak barrels for up to 12 months.
|The staves (the pieces of oak wood which form the barrel) do have a certain permeability. The stored wine gets oxidised continuously at a very moderate rate. The barriques which hold the red wine are smaller than our other barrels. Therefore the wine/surface ratio is higher and consequently a larger (but acceptable) amount of oxidisation occurs.|